Comparative Epidemiology of Dependence on Tobacco, Alcohol, Controlled Substances, and Inhalants: Basic Findings From the National Comorbidity Survey
Experimental and Clinical Psycho pharmacology 1994. Vol. 2, No. 3, 244-268
James C. Anthony, Lynn A. Warner, and Ronald C. Kessler
Studying prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev., American Psychiatric Association, 1987) drug dependence among Americans 15-54 years old, we found about 1 in 4 (24%) had a history of tobacco dependence; about 1 in 7 (14%) had a history of alcohol dependence; and about 1 in 13 (7.5%) had a history of dependence on an inhalant or controlled drug. About one third of tobacco smokers had developed tobacco dependence and about 15% of drinkers had become alcohol dependent. Among users of the other drugs, about 15% had become dependent. Many more Americans age 15-54 have been affected by dependence on psychoactive substances than by other psychiatric disturbances now accorded a higher priority in mental health service delivery systems, prevention, and sponsored research programs.
Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: A critical review
Journal of Substance Abuse, 3, 85-90 (199I)
James W. Hayden
Chemical Dependence Associates, Priest River, ID
A number of research studies have been published which have attempted to determine the relationship of the passive inhalation of marijuana smoke to the consequent production of urinary cannabinoids. At least superficially, most of these studies appear to support the proposition that passive inhalation should be seriously considered as a possible explanation for a positive urine test for marijuana. Examination of the experimental conditions that are required to produce positive test results indicates that passive inhalation does not have a major effect outside the laboratory and should not affect drug test results in the workplace.
Alcoholism and the Endocannabinoid System
O’Shaughnessy’s • Summer 2010 —37—
By Martin A. Lee
Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
Celia JA Morgan, Tom P Freeman, Grainne L Schafer and H Valerie Curran
Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis in humans. A total of 94 cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders.
Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.
Addictive Behaviors 38 (2013)
Celia J.A. Morgan, Ravi K. Das, Alyssa Joye, H. Valerie Curran, Sunjeev K. Kamboj
The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.
Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs
Harm Reduction Journal 2009
Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients.
Menace or medicine? Anthropological perspectives on the self administration of high potency cannabis in the UK
Lecturer in Medical Anthropology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury UK
Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as “skunk” in mainstream British media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers whether this trend reflects increased awareness of and desire for medical marijuana. Determining whether cannabis is a drug or a medicine depends on its objective physiological effects, which may vary from one individual to another, as well as how and why those effects are experienced. Medicinal and mind-altering effects of cannabis are not easily separable for many cannabis users. The medicinal use of cannabis in Britain has waxed and waned since the early 19th century. Currently the UK is on the cutting edge of the development of cannabis-based pharmaceuticals, but criminalizes people who choose to self-medicate with herbal cannabis. We are living in time of political, social and economic uncertainty, which threatens the stability of national healthcare systems. The broad ranging effects of cannabis on the human body and mind, combined with its relatively easy cultivation, make it a sustainable and effective alternative medicine. Research is needed, especially on the experiences of people who use cannabis to benefit, enrich and even prolong their lives.